The 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics
Electrodynamics, in essence, is the study of electric charges interact and create electric and magnetic fields. During the mid-twentieth century, this was well understood on the macroscopic level - but on the quantum scale it remained a tricky mystery. Quantum mechanics deals with incredibly small objects, such as protons, neutrons, electrons, and other elementary particles. Quantum electrodynamics (QED) is the theory of how electrodynamics applies to these elementary particles, and explains how electromagnetic forces between particles work. The exchange of minute electromagnetic radiation mediates the forces between these particles.
Three independent men published papers making huge contributions to QED: Richard Feynman, Sin-Itiro Tomonaga and Julian Schwinger. According to the official release, the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded for:
“…fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles”.